And why should such questions come to the fore at this particular moment in the early fourth century? I have not been able to consult Perono Cacciafoco The neologism is of course coined by the editors not by Optatian himself. But it points to a particular intersection between our our concerns in this volume and the research agenda of the Internationales Kolleg Morphomata, under whose auspices our project took shape. At the same time, this oscillation between text and image literalises other sorts of semantic indeterminacy.
Again and again, Optatian talks of his works in terms of signs or signa. Lissarrague , Squire , — and Squire and Grethlein , esp.
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Squire b, esp. De glor. The morphing from words to pictures — and back again — in fact figures numerous other sorts of fluctuation. Foremost among these is a vacillation in language. Throughout this introduction, I have referred to Optatian as a Latin poet. And yet figured within three of his poems are letters, words and phrases that do double duty in Greek, containing hid- den messages that break the linguistic code structuring their arrangement Carm.
Hardie and Benediktson , — For the rich subsequent western reception of the expression, see e. Hagstrum and Barkan Henderson ; Vasaly ; Chinn ; Sheppard , esp. The most insightful re- cent discussion of ancient ecphrasis is Webb complete with appendix of the most important passages on pp. Pastorino , —; Green , The same concern with shifting signs takes on numerous other figura- tive forms. For discussions of the poem, see above, n.
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In the case of the ship figured within Carm. With Carm. Flores and Polara , along with e. Alan Cameron , —; Pozzi , —; Roberts , esp. Some- times the poems themselves play out the compositional re-spinnings: the 32 verses of Carm. Where the metrical structure of Carm. Ernst , 46—48 also provid- ing a German translation , along with e.
The first four verses of the poem ascend in a series of disyllabic, trisyllabic, tetrasyllabic and pentasyllabic words, cul- minating with a fifth verse with words proceeding from one syllable to five. Optatian then offers lines for reading in multiple sequences: because of its symmetrical arrangement of dactyl and molossus, for example, the words of v. A still more programmatic example can be found in Carm. In the same way that Carm. In such games with the frame of mediating language, words become not only the vehicle of poetry, but also its self-referential subject: literally and metaphorically, questions of significance are placed in the hands of the reading audience.
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How, then, should we make sense of such transformational poetic games? It is this question — variously framed, defined and interpreted — that lies at the heart of the book. Although the precise metrical rules have been much debated, more recent counts put the figure considerably higher: cf. Other analyses include Levitan , —; Bruhat , —; Letrouit ; Ernst , 50—52; Pelttari , 77—79; Squire a, 98— Squire , esp. Ott, Sauer and Meier eds. Numer- ous other Barthesian soundbites could be introduced: e.
For all his anticipation of contemporary concerns, Optatian nonetheless gives form to some of the most pressing intellectual concerns of his day, at once expressing and interrogating a number of specific fourth-century cultural preoccupations: a self-conscious re-thinking of the relationship between past and present, an explosion of new and revived philosophical paradigms, and not least novel frameworks for approaching sight, insight and imagination themselves instantiated in the stylistic reconfigurations of Constantinian visual culture.
For introductions and further bibliography, cf. Levin Becker and Bloomfield and Lesage eds. Levitan , esp. Grabar ; Engemann ; Kitzinger ; Mathews ; Elsner with further comments in and ; Jensen ; Hannestad ; Jefferson and Jensen eds. Moreschini , — The bibliography here is too large to be sum- marised in a single footnote. One of the most relevant discussions of phantasia and mimesis is that of Philostratus: on VA 2.
Carmina by Catull
Wienand a, esp. On the historical background, see the excellent discussion of Bleckmann , along with the other essays in the third section of Wienand ed. De mort. A second objective was to offer an international reappraisal. Needless to say, there was a challenge in finding a shared working language. Squire a, Squire c and Squire and Whitton Rather, as our title reflects, we set out to celebrate the multiple and shifting semantic registers. A similar breadth applies to our line-up of contributors.
Others have not previously worked on this material: precisely for this reason, we felt, they could raise new questions and stimulate new sorts of discussion.
There have been numerous previous attempts to establish a chronological framework for the political career of the poet; likewise, some scholars have attempted to date individual poems on the grounds of their subjects and formal complexity. Along the way, Wienand also suggests a new chronology for the two surviving letters between Optatian and Constantine most likely between and As the chapter reminds us, the authenticity of these two texts has been much debated.
Bruhat , 2—31 and Wienand a, esp. For attempts to date individual poems, see above, n. Wienand this volume , p. It can be all too tempting to consider such works capricious literary fancies. Strodel , 1, , Guichard , 83—84 and Kwapisz , 9—11; cf. Focusing on Carm.
In the case of Carm. These include Nic. There can be no doubt that this poem, like others in the corpus, emphasised its integration of different colours: presumably at least two and quite possibly three different shades were used to delineate the outer and inner lozenge-shapes [cf. Plate 7]; indeed part of the puzzle lies in following that colour-coding in order to read the text of the lozenge-shapes, after all, readers must proceed in horizontal sequence back and forth across the monochrome patterns, rather than treat the interwoven shapes in isolation.
AP 14—23, with e. While in one sense self-contained — bound within its autonomous grid — each carmen cancellatum layers its games across space and time; throughout the corpus, Optatian likewise invites his audiences to devise their own readerly passage, traversing a trail through the collection as a whole. Even when one squares a reading of the individual text with the anthology that circumscribes is, the frames of reference continue to extend beyond the book-ended collection. The next three chapters are centred around the opening poems of the extant collection, especially Carm.
At the centre of both articles is an interest in Carm. This generic tension between convention and innovation is duly related to the puzzling iconic schema of Carm. Plate 2]? Squire c, At the crux of this chapter is a semantic question about the term textus cf. The case study with which his chapter begins is Carm.
To demonstrate the point, the chapter offers a series of lexicographic entries on Carm. Herrmann Jr. What is so remarkable about Optatian, he argues, is the way in which the poet anticipates the wholly more post modern creations of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Although Prof. Ernst pre- pared a presentation for the Cologne workshop, he was ultimately unable to join us in person; his lecture was delivered by an assistant Oliver Ehlen.
Cascardi Pelttari , 45—72 on the importance of the framing preface. With the penultimate chapter we move from antiquity to the modern- day, and back again. Unlike other contributors, Elsner and Henderson did not take part in the Cologne workshop from which the volume ultimately derives. It seems appropriate to round off the present introduction on a dif- ferent note. For us, as for Optatian, the old certainties — of belief, knowledge and not least academic scholarship itself — are being rethought, and perhaps more intensively than ever before.
After all, the self-consciousness with which his works dissect the On those postmodern themes, cf. Pelttari and the earlier analysis of Nugent focussed on the works of Ausonius. For a brief overview of Hege- lian aesthetics — with bibliographic survey — see Squire , 58— For further discussion, albeit in a different context, cf. Squire , n. However small this corpus, it has the potential to reconfigure our views of western cultural, intellectual and philosophical history — and on the largest possible scale.
Visuelle Poesie von der Antike bis zur Moderne. Austin, R. Baldwin, B. Bardill, J. Bardon, H. Barkan, L. Barnes, T. Barth, J. Barthes, R. New York. Bartsch, S. Cambridge, MA. Bateman, J. Benediktson, D. Norman, OK. Birmelin, E. Blamberger, G. Blanck, H. Bleckmann, B. Wienand ed. Bloomfield, C. Boeder, M. Boschung, D. Bruhat, M. Lille: — Butler, S. Madison, WI. Butz, P. Swain and M. Edwards eds. Cameron, Averil and Hall, S. Carson, A. Hexter and D. New York: 51— Cascardi, A. Gracia, C. Korsmeyer and R. New York: — Castillo, J. Chazelle, C. Chinn, C. Christian, T. Zur Rezeption literarischer Techniken in den Versinschriften seit dem Hellenismus.
Consolino, F. Studia humanitatis Antonio Garzya septuagenario ab amicis atque discipulis dicata, eds. Criscuolo and R. Naples: — Courtney, E. Cox Miller, P. Dachowski, E. Washington DC. Dencker, K. Derrida, J. Bennington and I. Doria, C. Carbondale, IL: 63— Drake, H. Berkeley, CA. Eco, U. Weaver, 2nd edn.
Edwards, J. Brussels: — Elsner, J. Lenski ed. Elsner and J. Engels, L. Neues Handbuch der Literaturwissen- schaft, Band 4, eds. Engels and H. Wiesbaden: 29— Engemann, J. Ernst, U. Berlin: — Band I: Von der Antike bis zum Barock. Faraone, C. Felten, F. Orff's ideas were developed, together with Gunild Keetman, into a very innovative approach to music education for children, known as the "Orff Schulwerk". The music is elemental and combines movement, singing, playing, and improvisation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Carl Orff.
Munich , Germany. Harvard Dictionary of Music. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 February Carl Orff, the German composer and music educator best known for his work Carmina Burana, died of cancer Monday night in a Munich, West Germany, clinic. He was 86 years old. Retrieved Carl Orff Center. In Deane L. Root ed. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Die Zeit in German.
Musiklexikon 2nd ed. Berlin: Max Hesses Verlag. The Independent. Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved 27 March Die Welt in German. The Guardian. Margaret Murray, published by Schott Music , Orff Schulwerk s " Gassenhauer ". Carl-Orff-Saal of the Gasteig. Category:Compositions by Carl Orff. Carmina Burana. Biography portal Classical music portal. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote.
If you know some music, you'll deduce what Mahler wants ; Don't take me wrong, I'd love to answer this question, but it is off-topic. You can always edit it, so that it is transformed into a question visitors could learn from instead of asking for a translation. May 17 '18 at I know this text very well. I am singing in a famous choir Wiener Singakademie , and we perform this symphony in 9 days: konzerthaus. This note is the lowest note ever written for singers in classical music. You can't play this note on a cheap 5-octave-keyboard, because it is left of the lowest key on such a keyboard.