Women and the Law: Leaders, Cases, and Documents. Lynch, Kathleen M. The Social Mode of Restoration Comedy. Biblo-Moser, Martinez-Garcia, Laura. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press Ltd, Owen, Susan J. DS Brewer, Perspectives on Restoration Drama. Manchester University Press, Panek, Jennifer. Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton. The Angel in the House. London: Macmillan, Shepard, Alexandra.
Meanings of Manhood in Early Modern England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Thompson, Peggy. Lexington Books, Toulalan, Sarah. OUP Oxford, Turner, David M. Cambridge University Press, Vance, John A. William Wycherley and the Comedy of Fear. University of Delaware Press, Velissariou, Aspasia. Wade, Ira O. Intellectual Origins of the French Enlightenment. Princeton University Press, Wycherley, William. The Country Wife. The History of Sexuality, Volume I , Gender, Sex and Subordination in England, , xix.
Undoing Gender , 1. Etherege and Wycherley , Meanings of Manhood in Early Modern England , Gender Trouble , Jealousy and cuckoldry in The Country Wife As he himself declares, Alithea: Mr. Sparkish, do you bring People to rail at you? Alithea: He said you were a Wretch, below an injury. Some of these musicals include Oklahoma!
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It is my hope that this article will contribute to this body of literature in addition to outlining a new way of using cluster criticism to analyze performative texts. This article proposes that cluster criticism, as a type of rhetorical criticism, be extended from its original form in order to examine the messages conveyed through theatre and how performance contributes to the creation of these messages.
Rhetorical analysis allows one to find emerging themes or clusters in cluster criticism in the text, and these themes or clusters can be used to construct meaning. Rhetorical analysis also focuses on the role of the audience. As Charland observes, the audience embodies discourse. As audience members, we participate in the meaning-making process along with the performers, directors, producers, lyricists, composers and playwrights. Therefore, it is important not only to examine the written textual elements of a theatrical work, such as the script and sheet music, but also the performative elements experienced by the audience, such as scenery, stage direction, musical intonation, and sound effects.
Therefore, fieldnotes of performances are necessary to examine performative elements. Using the research technique of qualitative observation Angrosino; Lindlof and Taylor , I attended three performances of Wicked , taking detailed fieldnotes by hand. The three performances observed for this study were the September 2, performance in Chicago, the September 13, touring company performance in Pittsburgh, and the New York Broadway performance on July 11, All three performances were directed by Joe Mantello.
Observing more than one performance enhanced this study by providing an opportunity to compare and contrast the usage of performative elements. Playbills from the three performances observed for this study. Photo taken by Valerie Lynn Schrader. Cluster criticism allows rhetorical critics to examine relationships and meanings between concepts in the text Foss, He makes note that cluster analysis allows interrelationships between these elements to emerge, and it is only by studying a work after it has been completed that one can understand these interrelationships However, as Carol A.
Because of this ambiguity, other scholars have sought to define the method in ways that are less abstract.
A Rhetoric of Rehabilitation: Dorothea Dix's Prison Reform Arguments
One of these scholars is William Rueckert. He illustrates the method by applying it to a number of different texts, including the Shakespearean play Othello , poems by Cummings and Wordsworth, and the novels Madame Bovary and The Ordeal of Richard Feverel Cluster criticism has often been employed as a method of analyzing public address. Berthold applied cluster criticism to the rhetoric of John F. Cluster criticism can also be used as a method when examining other rhetorical texts. While traditional cluster criticism is useful in public address settings, it often falls short when used to analyze non-public address texts, such as films, television shows, music, and theatre.
In , Lynch re-envisioned cluster criticism so that it could be used to analyze qualitative interviews and focus groups. In his study, Lynch provided key terms for focus groups to use, but his participants defined those terms by using other terms, which were then clustered together. Lynch was then able to form meanings from these clusters. Through this study, I attempt to extend cluster criticism in a way that will allow it to be a useful tool for rhetorical critics studying performative texts.
However, this extension of cluster criticism focuses on the messages conveyed to the audience. Similar to what Kimberling describes in regards to the creation of motion pictures 31 , there are many people involved in how a message is conveyed through theatrical performance, and therefore, one cannot determine one sole rhetor for a performance. Writers create scripts and characters. Directors and actors both have visions for how characters and events should be portrayed. Producers, lighting designers, sound directors, property managers, set designers and costume designers all play a role in how messages are conveyed through performance.
It is nearly impossible to determine who is responsible for the way a particular scene is performed in a theatrical production. Therefore, the emphasis of this study is on the experience of the living product of this collaboration: The performance of the character by a particular actor.
This article contends that cluster criticism can also be employed through a postmodern perspective to analyze meanings that are co-constructed by the writers, directors, producers, performers and audiences of a particular performance. In this cluster criticism of Wicked , I look for messages and meanings within the text and for the ways in which performance affects these messages and meanings. Through observation and close readings of these layers, several key themes emerged, including leadership, hegemony, and the characteristics and strategies of social movements.
Through the analysis of these layers of text, additional concepts and examples that relate to hegemony have emerged. These additional examples and concepts formed clusters, all of which were diagrammed on a cluster map See Fig. The extension of this method has allowed meanings that are salient in the messages and performances of Wicked to emerge. Hegemony, initially coined by Antonio Gramsci, is the maintenance of power by one group over a subordinate group Further Selections.
Hegemony describes how the dominant group coerces or convinces the subordinate group to accept their own oppression; it creates a contradictory consciousness within people in that while they experience life in an oppressed way, they are also subjected to the messages that praise upholding the status quo McGovern. In short, hegemony is the ability of the dominant or institutional group to persuade or coerce a subordinate group to accept its own oppression because there is significant benefit for the subordinate group by doing so.
Some scholars have examined the role of the hegemon. Mearsheimer suggests that a hegemon is a state that dominates all others The hegemon is the dominant group, institution, or leader that dominates an oppressed group. In short, a hegemon cannot exist without an oppressed group to dominate. Hegemony, therefore, seems an appropriate term through which to examine a text using a Burkean methodology. This cluster analysis revealed a number of themes clustered around the concept of hegemony See Fig. While the first category appears more prominent based on the number of clusters and examples that refer to it Oppression of Animals, Dillamond as scapegoat, Elphaba as scapegoat, Animals in lower level positions, and Morrible aligns herself with people in power , the second category is equally as important because it allows the hegemonic strategies to occur.
Figure 1. The cluster map created through this study. You can also view this image as a full-page PDF file here. The apathy of the Ozian public is first revealed through the character of Fiyero in the first act. In Oz, Animals with a capital A are different from animals with a lower-case a because of their ability to think and communicate; they are essentially an oppressed social class that is gradually having their rights stripped away from them.
By encouraging his classmates not to think about things that upset them, Fiyero turns his back on the oppression of the Animals, thus contributing to the hegemony in the country. If the public chooses to ignore issues that trouble them, they are, in a way, giving their consent for such problems to exist. This apathy is further illustrated in the reactions of the class in the Pittsburgh and New York performances when Dr. In the Chicago production, the Ozian students were ashamed and hung their heads.
In the other two performances, however, they were silent with blank expressions on their faces, thus suggesting apathy; they simply do not care what happens to the Animals in Oz. It is this apathy that allows the hegemonic regime to oppress Animals without having to justify this oppression to a concerned public. This cluster analysis revealed three unique strategies used by hegemonic leaders to gain or maintain control over their populace: Aligning with those in power, scapegoating, and demoting Animals to lower level positions.
In the same scene, Morrible recognizes that Elphaba has a natural talent for sorcery, and insists on teaching Elphaba in a private sorcery seminar, in hopes that Elphaba will be able to develop her skill enough that Morrible can present her to the Wizard and be rewarded for her efforts. Later in Act 1, when Madame Morrible arrives to tell Elphaba that the Wizard wants to meet her, Morrible is at least as overjoyed, if not more so, than Elphaba herself. While initially this appears to simply be the happiness of a mentor at seeing her student excel, it becomes clear that Morrible had selfish reasons for mentoring Elphaba and being happy for her.
I knew she had the power! I told you! You benefit, too! In this same scene, Morrible clearly articulates her quid pro quo strategy for gaining power. In return, Madame Morrible becomes an important figure in the regime. I hope you prove me wrong. I doubt you will. Morrible is concerned only with her own welfare, and only encourages those who show promise because they potentially could help her obtain the power she seeks. Those, like Galinda, who do not show promise immediately, are simply brushed aside.
The story accomplishes two goals for Morrible as hegemonic leader: 1 She is able to continue to align herself with those in power by painting Glinda in a positive light, and 2 she is able to re-contextualize the situation to paint Elphaba in a negative light. Morrible also attempts to survive a regime change through her sycophantic strategy when Glinda banishes the Wizard from Oz. In her essay, Lorde suggests that feminism as a movement cannot be successful as long as it works within a patriarchy that will never let it advance.
While this may be true of social movements, individuals are often brought down by the same device that causes them to rise to power. The second strategy, scapegoating, is illustrated through a number of characters in the musical. Scapegoating is used by hegemonic regimes to maintain control over their state. Dillamond , and ultimately, Elphaba herself. First, it is no surprise that Dr. Dillamond, the chief Animal character in the show, is a Goat.
In fact, it is Dr. Dillamond, when lecturing to the students on Ozian history, who introduces the term scapegoat. He tells them,. In all three of the productions documented for this study, a timeline on a blackboard further illustrated this point. The timeline allows Dillamond to show his students which events occurred in what order so that they may make connections between history and the oppression currently facing the Animals.
In the Chicago and Pittsburgh performances, Dillamond appeared angry and perhaps frightened. He screamed at the students to leave. In the New York performance, he appeared to be more hurt than angry, and his voice shook a bit when he told the students to leave. Each performance choice offers a slightly different message for the audience to consider. The Chicago performance suggests that those being oppressed are strong and willing to fight, and that the Ozian population merely needs to be educated, like the students who recognized the unfair treatment and felt shame because of it, in order to change society and end the oppression.
In contrast, the Pittsburgh performance suggests that the oppressed class of Animals, represented by Dr. Dillamond, is strong and willing to fight for their rights, but face the added challenge of winning the hearts and minds of an apathetic public. Finally, the New York performance allows audience members to feel more sympathy for the Animals, represented by a shaken Dr. Dillamond, and less sympathy for the students, or Ozian society, whom they represent.
Animals are not the only scapegoat in Wicked. Elphaba herself becomes a scapegoat in Act II. First, she becomes a scapegoat for her family. I tried to stop her! It was Elphaba, Boq, it was Elphaba! By the end of the musical, Elphaba becomes more than simply the family scapegoat. She becomes a scapegoat for the entire nation of Oz.
This is especially prevalent during the mob scene at the end of the musical. The first figure is Boq, who declares that he holds Elphaba responsible for his condition and wishes to kill her in retaliation. The second figure, a Lion whom Elphaba and Fiyero freed during college, relays his message to Boq, who speaks for him. Animals whom she has tried to help have blamed her for their troubles. Some social protest leaders, like Elphaba, have become a scapegoat for their own causes. One figure in U. Brown became a leader of antislavery guerillas and fought against proslavery attacks.
Brown became one of the most controversial figures of his time and has been partially credited with starting the Civil War Frye. Like Brown, Elphaba is not only a scapegoat for her opposition, but for those who support her cause. Elphaba reminds audience members that one of the risks of fighting against hegemony is becoming a scapegoat. Another hegemonic strategy revealed through this analysis is the demotion of those in the oppressed class to lower level positions.
Throughout Wicked , especially in the first act, Animals have been demoted to manual labor positions.
What is particularly interesting about this theme is that it emerged almost entirely from performance fieldnotes, while most of the other themes and sub-themes arose from the script with the performance fieldnotes taking a supporting role. In fact, six out of the nine examples regarding this sub-theme are observable only through performance see Fig. The first example occurs at the very beginning of all three performances. Flying Monkeys push, pull, and spin mechanical-looking wheels that appear to cause the curtain to rise. The Monkeys make sounds, but they do not speak as they turn the wheels and cogs.
In the New York performance, they entered the stage from every possible entrance: Some entered from stage left or stage right, some came from around the proscenium, and still others entered the stage through trap doors in the floorboards of the stage. Other examples of Animals doing manual labor occur at various points in Act I. The New York performance also featured an Animal serving punch to Boq and Nessarose in the dance scene at the OzDust Ballroom and an Animal loading and unloading baggage at the train station when Elphaba leaves for the Emerald City.
In fact, with the exception of Dr. Dillamond, Animals are never seen in a position of power or prestige during the musical. Dillamond sings,. Later, Dillamond becomes an example of his own story when he himself is forbidden to teach at Shiz University. In Oz, Animals are forced to take these positions because they are considered a lower social class, and Animals in prestigious positions, such as professors or pastors, are removed by the government from the very positions they worked hard to obtain. Again, Wicked reminds audience members of real-life history: This is similar to the initial measures the Third Reich used in the s to persecute the Jewish people.
According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website, in , the Nazi-dominated German government passed a law that forbade Jews from holding positions in government, in the tax profession, and as stage actors. The German government also restricted their rights when holding positions in the legal sphere and in the medical profession.
The rights of the Jewish people in Germany were further abolished throughout the s until ultimately they were sent to concentration camps during the Holocaust. The musical reminds theatre-goers that no nation is safe from committing these atrocities, unless its citizens remember history, keep aware, and take action.
Scholars have utilized Burkean concepts in studies of performance and popular art in various ways. In his work on theatre as ritual, Bruce A. Through an analysis of hegemony in the musical Wicked as a case study, I have sought to expand the scope of cluster criticism so that it may be used for a broader range of texts. While cluster criticism has previously been used primarily for examining public address texts, newspaper articles, and other word-oriented texts, Rueckert observes in Kenneth Burke and the Drama of Human Relations that cluster criticism can be used to examine dramatic texts, such as plays, as well.
Rueckert suggests that the cluster criticism can be applied to different texts in the same way 88 , but applying traditional cluster criticism to a performative text only accommodates the words in a script or perhaps lyrics in a song, excluding elements that can only be experienced through performance. While the general procedure remains the same, this article has suggested that cluster criticism be extended to accommodate the various layers of a performative, fragmented text.
Instead of searching for particular words that cluster together to form meanings, this extension of cluster criticism requires the critic to search for themes that clustered together to form meanings. In this case study, these clusters emerged upon the examination of each layer of the performative text the New York performance script, fieldnotes from each of three performances, the original cast recording, and the sheet music.
It should be noted that different clusters and sub-clusters could emerge from the same text if a different term or phrase was used as a lens with which to examine each layer of text. By analyzing each layer of text, numerous clusters and sub-clusters emerged from this analysis. These clusters included Ozian apathy and frivolousness, the oppression of Animals, the demotion of Animals to lower level positions, the scapegoating of Elphaba, the scapegoating of Dr.
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Dillamond, and aligning oneself with people in power illustrated through the character of Madame Morrible. Apathy leads to hegemony, 2. Each of these themes was supported by a number of examples from the various layers of this performative text. The emergence of the fourth theme suggests that in order to thoroughly examine performative texts, one must extend cluster criticism as a method to include not only words and lyrics, but also performative elements, such as use of props, stage movement, music, and visual and sound effects.
The intention of this article was to provide rhetorical critics, performance scholars, and scholars of film, television and other media with a methodology through which to rhetorically study themes in layered, performative texts. Future research may employ cluster criticism to study multiple performances of theatrical productions, both musical and non-musical, the different visual and auditory elements of a television program episode, or the various layers of a film.
It is my hope that rhetorical and performance scholars will find this extension of cluster criticism valuable when examining a variety of performance-oriented rhetorical texts, whether those texts are performed live, part of everyday life, videotaped, or broadcasted through new media. The word Monkey is capitalized because in Wicked , Ozian Animals with a capital A are distinguished from animals with a lower-case a because of their ability to think and communicate; they represent an oppressed social class.
A true slave morality is implicitly obeyed — and while such morality is intact, the slave does not consider his obedience as slavery, any more than a child normally considers obedience to its parents slavery. The author would like to thank her dissertation committee, Dr. Jerry L. Miller, Dr. William K. Rawlins, Dr. Benjamin R. Bates, Dr. Smith, and Dr. Jordan Schildcrout of Ohio University, for their guidance. Aiken, Roger Cushing. Property, Ethnicity, and Gender in Oklahoma! Angrosino, Michael V. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Thousand Oaks: Sage, On Rhetoric. George A. Oxford: Oxford UP, Berthold, Carol A.
Bremmer, Jan N. Lindsay Jones. Detroit: Macmillan Reference, Burger, Alissa. Bowling Green State U, UMI, Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. Berkeley: U of California Press, Charland, Maurice. Conquergood, Dwight. Cook, Susan C. Corcorcan, Farrel. Elliot, Beverly F. Fergusson, Francis. The Human Image in Dramatic Literature. Gloucester: Peter Smith, Fontana, Benedetto.
Foss, Sonja K. Frye, Dennis E. Civil War Trust. Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method.
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Gassner, John. Gramsci, Antonio. Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Derek Boothman. London: Lawrence and Wishart, Letters from Prison. Lynne Lawner. New York: Harper Colophon Books, Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith.
New York: International, Graves, Michael P. Hellman, Wesley James. Hoffman, Mary F. Public Broadcasting Service. Keohane, Robert O. Princeton: Princeton UP, Kimberling, C. King, Andrew. Kruse, Sharon D. Lane, Ileana. Lentner, Howard H. Lindlof, Thomas R. Qualitative Communication Research Methods. Lorde, A. Madison, D. Soyini and Hamera, Judith. Norman D. Soyini Madison and Judith Hamera. McConachie, Bruce A. McGovern, Stephen J.
Mearsheimer, John J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. Norton, Miller, Gail T. Most, Andrea. Pao, Angela. Papa, Lee. Pullum, Stephen J. Raab, Doris. Rueckert, W. Kenneth Burke and the Drama of Human Relations. Sandburg, Carl. New York: Galahad Books, Schrader, Valerie Lynn.
Schriver, Kristina and Nudd, Donna Marie. Schweitzer, Carol. Scott, James C. Sebesta, Judith. Tomkins, Phillip K. Wolf, Stacy. We present a dramatistic analysis of the discourse of Syrian President Assad and his opposition in the ongoing Syrian civil war. Comparing terministic screens and world views expressed in the discourses, we find that the Assad regime believes it is not responsible for the current conflict, and is justified in the use of violence against rebel groups.
Rebel groups overtly reject Western values and seek to depict their current and planned violence as morally justified. The views represented in this article are those of the authors and are not intended to officially or unofficially represent the position of the U. Army or U. We originally undertook this project in the fall of — a time when the Assad Regime seemed to be gaining ground in the Syrian Civil War and rebel groups appeared to be fractured.
Tension between the Syrian regime and the West was particularly high due to rebel allegations that the Syrian military was employing chemical weapons. ISIL then known as the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham was still jockeying for dominance with the Nusrah Front al-Qaeda in Syria within the trans-national Al-Qaeda power structure, and the refugee crisis was not nearly as intense as in late Throughout , the Assad regime appeared to make a coordinated effort to portray itself as an ally in "Global War on Terror. To gain a better perspective of the regime's position, we began examining the discourse of the disparate rebel groups fighting against Assad's forces to see if it lent any validity to his message.
Coincidentally, many of the rebel groups we examined began collapsing under the umbrella of the "Islamic Front. Given this development, we felt that a two-sided analysis of the conflict's discourse would help uncover the motives of each side. We later added some examples of ISIL activities to demonstrate how ignoring rhetorical justifications for inhumane behavior on both sides can have serious implications. Islamic State brutality against Yazidi Christians in the north of Iraq, seizure of crucial Iraqi infrastructure, and barbaric beheadings of American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff have resulted in the Obama administration's call for an international coalition to defeat the organization in Iraq and Syria.
Coalition efforts have already required U. However, in order to make a new war palatable, as well as defend previous policy decisions, the Islamic State seems to be portrayed as a new and emerging threat, one differentiated from former adversaries who "pulled" us into previous conflicts. Thus, dominant administration and media narratives seem to push the idea that "ISIS" materialized from the ether to become a threat " even more extreme than Al-Qaeda " "David Gregory".
It's something that gives us really extreme, extreme concern…. Suddenly, it seems the U. In the words of an Al-Qaeda aligned Syrian opposition fighter, "Your news makes it seem like [ISIL] appeared out of nowhere… [slamming his hand on the dashboard]. You want to talk about [ISIL]? Ask a Syrian!
Presidential candidates and pundits now debate whether we should have armed earlier "a more moderate Syrian opposition" and whether collaboration with Assad is acceptable Goldberg, " Hillary Clinton ". Such characterizations and suggestions, however, require a closer look at the recent history and discourse of the conflicts in Iraq and Syria.
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Examining the discourse of the Syrian conflict is vitally important because the parties in conflict represent larger warring factions throughout the Middle East. Such sectarian conflict defies U. Thus, it becomes important to understand how the conflict discourse of individual groups is indicative of motivation and actions that can potentially impact the security of American citizens and regional stability. An understanding of how extremism and violence manifest on both sides of the regional conflict can only encourage a more effective foreign policy.
Flowing out of dramatism is the idea that people universally use symbols to explain their actions in similar ways. In "The Rhetoric of Hitler's Battle," for instance, Kenneth Burke demonstrated how application of a dramatistic perspective allowed him to discover "what kind of 'medicine' this medicine-man [Hitler] has concocted, that we may know… exactly what to guard against, if we are to forestall the concocting of similar medicine in America" Burke, "The Rhetoric of Hitler's Battle" Burke's implication is clear: we should examine the speech-acts of those outside of the "American" world view, as well as critically compare such content with that of our own domestic political discourse.
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